匈牙利 Hungary (HU)

匈牙利共和国 The Republic of Hungary

时间:2013-07-17 04:53:26  来源:西游留学  作者:西游留学  关注: edit

首都:布达佩斯

人口:10190000

官方语言:匈牙利语

    匈牙利简介

匈牙利境内山河秀美、建筑壮丽、温泉遍布、四季分明,各国游客慕名而来。匈牙利的主要旅游点有布达佩斯、巴拉顿湖、多瑙河湾、马特劳山,其中坐落在多瑙河畔的首都布达佩斯是欧洲著名的古城,有“多瑙河上的明珠”之美誉;欧洲最大的淡水湖巴拉顿湖也是吸引游客的一个亮点。

数千年中的多次变迁为匈牙利留下了古罗马帝国遗址、土耳其式建筑、欧洲中世纪教堂和城堡等不同时期风格各异的美丽景观;其帕农哈尔玛修道院、布达城堡和霍洛克坡等都已被列入世界遗产。匈牙利有世界自然遗产霍托巴吉自然国家公园和阿吉特勒克石灰岩溶洞这样美丽的自然风光,更有优越的自然资源——温泉,全国有1300多眼温泉,温泉洗浴、疗养、游泳等已成为匈牙利最具吸引力的休闲项目。匈牙利地处中欧,温带大陆气候,四季分明,最佳的旅游时间是7、8 月;其大众运输系统具有国际级水准,可说是欧洲最好的运输系统之一,对自助旅行的旅客来说是再方便不过了。

  • 该国旅游官方机构联系方式:
  • 地址:不详
  • 电话:36-303030600
  • 传真:36-14888661
  • Email:info@hungarytourism.hu
  • 官方网站:不详
    匈牙利旅游概况

匈牙利共和国简称匈牙利,是一个位于欧洲中部的内陆国家,东邻罗马尼亚、乌克兰,南接斯洛文尼亚、克罗地亚、塞尔维亚,西靠奥地利,北连斯洛伐克,边界线全长2246公里,首都为布达佩斯,国花是郁金香。

匈牙利全境以平原为主,属多瑙河中游平原,山地不足五分之一;重要河流为多瑙河及其支流蒂萨河,巴拉顿湖为最大淡水湖;属温带大陆性气候,平均气温1月-4~-2℃,7月20~22℃,年降水量480~800毫米,自西向东递减。境内铝土矿储量丰富,分布在外多瑙山地一带;还有煤、石油、天然气、铁、锰、铀等矿藏;全境三分之二地区有地下热水蕴藏。匈牙利奉行独立的、以民族利益为基础的对外政策,在维护东西方平衡的外交关系的同时,争取返回欧洲,1999年3月,匈牙利正式加入北约;2004年5月1日,匈牙利正式成为欧盟成员国;在2007年12月21日成为申根公约会员国。

    匈牙利教育概况

来源:维基百科

Education in Hungary

The social environment of education

The decline of Hungarys population that started in 1981 has also continued in recent years. According to the 2001 census, the population of Hungary was 10,198,000, about half a million less than the figure of twenty years earlier. By 2005 the population dropped to 10,077,000. The age pyramid of the Hungarian population is among the most irregular ones in Europe. On 1 January 2005, due to the extremely low number of live births in the preceding years the size of the 0-4-year-old population was smaller than the next age groups of five-year increments up to the age group 60-64. There are major differences in the size of the various generations.

The official language of instruction is Hungarian, but a number of ethnic and national minorities (e.g. German, Romanian, Slovene, Serb and Croatian) have minority educational institutions with their own languages as first or second language of instruction at primary and secondary level of teaching. According to the 2003 survey, the rate of Roma children in the population entering school education in 2008-2009 is expected to be around 15%.

Public education administration

Horizontally, the administrative responsibilities are shared between the Ministry of Education and other ministries (primarily the Ministry of Employment and Social Affairs, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Interior). Vertically, the administrative control is decentralized and the managing responsibility is shared among the central (national), the local (regional) and institutional levels.

The local governments administer pre-primary, primary and secondary education. The different establishments enjoy a fair degree of decision-making autonomy not only in terms of organization and functioning but also with regard to their budgets.

Most pupils attend public-sector schools, which are administered and organized by the public authorities, primarily the local governments. The financing of educational institutions is sector neutral. State and private institutions receive funding according to the same criteria.

School system in Hungary

A special feature of the Hungarian education system is that institutional structures and the structure of educational programmes are not aligned with each other. The systems institutional structure and the presence of programmes allowing early selection show similarities with Central European and ex-socialist countries. The systems content structure, the uniform and general phase of education has extended, and secondary level education may be characterised by increased opportunities for transition. The general phase of education lasts until the age of 16 in Hungarys education system. Participation in secondary education, offering a wide variety of programmes, is fairly high. Within secondary education, the proportion of students studying in programmes leading to a secondary school-leaving certificate and offering transition to tertiary education is around the international average.

Hungarian education and training programmes (ISCED-97)

 

Institutional setting of programme

Programme destination and orientation

Notes

Pre-school

0

School-based programme for children aged 3–7. Includes basic skills development, pre-reading, drawing, singing and school preparation.

General school

1AG

General school primary level, Grades 1-4.

 

2AG

General school lower secondary level, Grades 5-8.

Vocational training school (Apprenticeship training)

2BG

Remedial programme for drop-outs and low achievers that provides a second chance for further education

 

2CV

Vocational training school programmes preparing qualifications for trades identified in the National Register of Vocational Qualifications that do not require the completion of 10 years of general education for entry

 

3CG

Vocational training school, Grades 9-10. General subject courses with vocational guidance preparing students for entering into programmes that require 10 years of general education

 

3CV

3-year apprenticeship training programmes according to the Education Act of 1985 starting after grade 8 of the general school. 1997/98 was the last year of new enrolments, because the new law does not allow dualsystem vocational education before age 16.

 

4CV

Post-secondary vocational programmes where the entry requirement is the completion of secondary education

Special vocational training school

2CP

Basic skills and labour market oriented development programme for students with special educational needs

General secondary school

2AG

Grades 5-8, and 7-8 of the eight-grade and six-grade general secondary school

 

3AG

General secondary education, grades 9-12 preparing students for secondary school final examination

Vocational secondary school

3AP

Vocational secondary school programmes preparing students for secondary school final examination with pre-vocational elements, Grades 9-12 (13).

 

3BP

Vocational secondary part-time programmes, Grades 9–12 (13) preparing for secondary school final examination with pre-vocational programme elements

 

4AG

General secondary programme preparing for secondary school final examination for vocational training school graduates (3CV)

 

4CV

Post-secondary vocational programmes where the entry requirement is a secondary school-leaving certificate

 

5B

Non-university higher vocational training programmes leading to non-graduate vocational qualifications with credit courses acknowledged in higher education

College, university

5A

College graduate education and post-graduate specialisation programmes, University graduate education, University supplementary (Master) programme for college graduates, Supplementary teacher training programme for engineers graduated incollege education, University post-graduate specialisation programme for university graduates

University

6

PhD courses, research work and dissertation DLA, doctoral degree in liberal arts

Source: Statistical Yearbook of Education 2002/2003, OM, 2003.

Notes: Destination for which the programmes have been designed to prepare students: A=access to further general education, B=access to further vocational education, C=access to the labour market. Orientation category is based on the degree to which content of programme has been specifically designed: G=general, P=pre-vocational, V=vocational.

Organization of the educational system

Pre-primary education

This educational level is considered as a crucially important integrated part of the school system. It caters for children from 3 to 7 years of age. Participation in pre-primary education at this level (óvoda) is optional, except for the final year (beyond age 5), which is compulsory.

Public-sector institutions may only charge for services additional to their basic tasks, including for example extracurricular activities, meals, excursions, etc. Currently, the attendance rate with regard to the age groups 3-5, is just above 86%. The average duration of participation of children aged 3–7 in pre-primary education is just over 3 years (3.3), which is the highest average value in Europe.

Primary education

Children start primary school when they reach school-maturity, usually in the year in which they have their 6th birthday (7th if they were born after May 31).

Primary education can last for 4, 6 or 8 years. 8-year education is the most widespread; the other two options were introduced in the early 1990s.

Subjects include literature, grammar, mathematics, music, art, Physical education, environmental studies (from 1st to 5th grade), biology (from 6th grade), geography (from 6th grade), history (from 5th grade), history of art, physics (from 6th grade), chemistry (from 7th grade), one or two foreign languages (usually English, German or French). Before 1990 Russian was compulsory.

Secondary education

Secondary education usually lasts for 4 years. In gimnáziums it can also last for 5, 6 or 8 years depending on how many years the student spent in primary school. Since 1997 the numbering of years in secondary school are following that of primary school (i. e. after the 8th grade of primary school the student goes to 9th grade, which is actually the 1st year of secondary school.)

There are three kinds of secondary schools:

Gimnázium (non-vocational; prepares students for higher education; teaches at least 2 foreign languages)

Szakközépiskola (vocational school but also prepares for higher education)

Szakiskola (vocational school)

After finishing secondary school, students take a school-leaving exam (Matura or final exam, érettségi in Hungarian). This consists from 2005 of exams on five subjects: written exam in mathematics, oral and written exams in literature and grammar, a foreign language, history, and written and/or oral exam in a subject of the students choice. These exams also serve as an entry exam to universities and colleges.

New secondary form until the school year of 2004/2005

Many of the gimnáziums have begun to teach a foreign language intensively (usually 12-14 lessons a week) and IT (usually 3-4 lessons a week) in the first year. This is called nyelvi el?készít? évfolyam, literally "Language training class", or simply nulladik évfolyam (literally "0th grade"). After 2005, students will have less foreign language lessons and IT.

At schools where there is no nulladik évfolyam (beginners classes), they may be required to introduce them because the majority of Hungarians do not speak more than one language, or only speak their parents language or dialect. Most students will finish High School at the age of 18 or 19, or when they complete Year 13.

Those who had at least an intermediate level language exam werent required to pass a language exam at Matura, but has become compulsory since 2006. In language training classes, a student must pass an intermediate level language exam in the second year, and the same level Matura in the third year.

Higher education

Higher education in Hungary dates back to 1367 when Louis the Great founded the first Hungarian university in the city of Pécs.

Higher education is divided between colleges and universities. College education generally lasts for 4 years, while university education lasts for 4 to 6 years depending on the course undertaken. University PhD courses usually take 3 years to complete.

Before students get their degree, they must pass an intermediate level language exam in the foreign language of their choice. English and German are the most popular. The number of Spanish-learners has been growing in the last few years. Recently a high number of students chose Esperanto and Romani languages. The latter is said to have a relatively small vocabulary and easy grammar.

来源:中国教育部涉外监管网

匈牙利高等教育由公立和非公立两类院校提供,目前,匈牙利教育部认可的国立大学(State University)有19所、国立学院(State College)9所。博洛尼亚改革之后,匈牙利也实施学士-硕士-博士三级学位制度。学士学位通常需要3-4年(180-240ECTS),硕士学位1-2年(60-120ECTS),博士学位至少3年。但医学、法律等少数专业还延续传统的学制。

各高校的强势学科大多能用外语开课,主要语种有英语、德语和法语。

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