波兰 Poland (POL)

波兰共和国 The Republic of Poland

时间:2013-07-17 04:53:22  来源:西游留学  作者:西游留学  关注: edit

首都:华沙

人口:38134000

官方语言:波兰语

    波兰简介

波兰是一个有着千年历史传统和丰富文化底蕴的国度,更是一个游客不可错过的神奇而美丽的地方。波兰已有十余处文化遗址列入联合国教科文组织的世界遗产名录,主要包括克拉科夫历史中心、华沙历史中心、维利奇卡盐矿、奥斯威辛集中营、扎莫希奇古城、马尔堡的条顿骑士团堡和玛丽安堡、托伦中世纪古城、卡尔瓦里亚—泽布日多夫斯卡风格独特的建筑和园林景观群与朝圣公园、亚沃尔和希维德尼察的和平教堂、小波兰南部的木结构教堂、马斯科夫公园,此外,还有世界自然遗产——比亚沃韦扎森林,这些承载着历史纪念意义的早期建筑、历史遗址及其艺术成就,与别具特色的自然景观交相辉映,吸引着每年上百万的各地游客慕名而来;而波兰也是钢琴大师肖邦的故乡,大师的遗物、大师的故居仍完好保留着。波兰旅游旺季是7-9月的夏季,每年5月到9月是波兰最美丽的时候,这时的天气是温暖而阳光明媚;九月是被誉为“波兰金色的秋天”的开始;而一年当中最适宜开展冬季运动的时间为1月份到3月份。

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    波兰旅游概况

波兰共和国简称波兰,是一个中欧国家,西面与德国接壤,南部与捷克和斯洛伐克为邻,乌克兰和白俄罗斯在东,东北部和立陶宛及俄罗斯接壤,北面濒临波罗的海。波兰重要的地理位置以及地形导致历史上连年的战火纷争,几个世纪以来波兰的版图也一再更改。

波兰面积为31万多平方公里,海岸线长528公里,全境绝大部分为略有起伏的低平原,北低南高,北部多冰碛湖,南部有低丘陵,全境属于由海洋性向大陆性气候过渡的温带阔叶林气候,自西而东,自北而南,海洋性渐减,大陆性递增,年降水量450-800毫米,南部山区可超过1000毫米,森林占国土 28%。波兰工业发达,采矿业以煤及褐煤最重要,煤炭储量居欧洲前列;琥珀储量丰富,价值约近千亿美元,是世界琥珀生产大国,有几百年开采琥珀的历史。波兰是欧洲联盟、北约、联合国、经济合作与发展组织和世贸组织的成员。

    波兰教育概况

来源:维基百科

Education in Poland

Since changes made in 2009 Education in Poland starts at the age of five or six for the 0 class (Kindergarten) and six or seven years in the 1st class of primary school (Polish szko?a podstawowa). It is compulsory that children do one year of formal education before entering 1st class at no later than 7 years of age. At the end of 6th class when the students are 13, they take a compulsory exam that will determine to which lower secondary school (gimnazjum, pronounced gheem-nah-sium) (Middle School/Junior High) they will be accepted. They will attend this school for three years for classes, 7, 8, and 9. They then take another compulsory exam to determine the upper secondary level school they will attend. There are several alternatives, the most common being the three years in a liceum or four years in a technikum. Both end with a maturity examination (matura, quite similar to French baccalauréat), and may be followed by several forms of upper education, leading to licencjat or in?ynier (the Polish Bologna Process first cycle qualification) , magister (the Polish Bologna Process second cycle qualification)and eventually doktor (the Polish Bologna Process third cycle qualification).

History

The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealths Commission of National Education (Polish: Komisja Edukacji Narodowej) formed in 1773 counts as the first Ministry of Education in the history of humankind.

During partitions of Poland and Second World War, much of Polands education was carried on in secret (see Education in Poland during World War II and Flying University).

The education in the Peoples Republic of Poland had on one hand vastly improved the literacy of all students, on the other hand some sciences (especially history and economics) have suffered from communist preference of propaganda over facts.

Polish education system was reformed in 1999. Primary school was shortened from 8 to 6 years, and high school was changed from 4 year liceum into 3 year gimnazjum and 3 year liceum.

Grading

There are a few slightly incompatible grading systems used in the Polish education.

Lower education

In the lower education the old system used up to the early 1990s was:

2 (niedostateczny, insufficient)

3 (dostateczny, sufficient)

4 (dobry, good)

5 (bardzo dobry, very good)

 The grades were used to rate each students performance at the end of a school year and getting a 2 meant that the student would have to repeat the class (in all subjects) or correct the grade by taking an additional exam (egzamin komisyjny) before a specially assembled committee. Grades 3 and higher were passing grades.

The grades given for individual assignments, exams etc. during the school year were based on the same scale, but allowed also intermediate grades, made by adding a plus, a minus or, in case of some teachers, a double minus, to the base grade. These "fractional" grades had no official recognition in the system of final grades, but the common practice was to base the final grade on the average of all the grades accumulated over the year. Fulfilling all the expectations usually meant a 5, with 5+ being occasionally given as an "exceeds expectations" grade.

The full scale was therefore:

2, 2+

(3=), 3-, 3, 3+

(4=), 4-, 4, 4+

(5=), 5-, 5, (5+)

(where "=" did not mean "equals" but was a common way of writing "a double minus" by those teachers that used such grades)

In the early 1990s the system was extended by introducing new grades, 1 and 6.

1 (niedostateczny, insufficient)

2 (initially mierny, poor, later renamed dopuszczaj?cy, passing)

3 (dostateczny, sufficient)

4 (dobry, good)

5 (bardzo dobry, very good)

6 (celuj?cy, excellent)

In the new system, 1 is the failing grade, 2 to 5 are normal passing grades, and 6 means that the student exceeded the expectations. The system is used like the old one. Adding minuses to a 6 is extremely uncommon. The performance that is better than 5 but does not deserve a 6 is usually graded 5+.

So the full scale is:

1, (1+ is rare)

(2=), 2-, 2, 2+

(3=), 3-, 3, 3+

(4=), 4-, 4, 4+

(5=), 5-, 5, 5+

6 (6- is rare too)

Grades below the lowest official passing grades, that is 3=/3- in the old system or 2=/2- in the new one, in case of some teachers mean that an extra examination is necessary before passing the student. Most commonly the lowest possible passing grades were given as an indication of barely passable performance.

Because getting a 1 (2 in the old system) in any subject means that the student has to repeat the year, including all subjects that were passed, the teachers are very reluctant to give a failing grade and usually allow some form of special examination in the last weeks of the year to correct the grade to 2 (or 3 respectively). For the same reason, the failing grades are usually only given in the subjects deemed the most important (such as the Polish language or mathematics).

University-level education

The university-level education uses a numeric system of grades from 2 to 5, with grades every 0.5.

2.0 – failing grade

3.0 – lowest passing grade

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0 – highest grade

There is in grade 2.5 5.5 or 6.0 is sometimes given as an "exceeds expectations" grade, but this differs among various universities and may be equivalent to 5.0 for some purposes. "3-" is occasionally (but very rarely) given as a "barely passing" grade, but for all official purposes it is equivalent to 3.0.

The grading is done every semester (twice a year), not once in a school year. Depending on the subject, the final grade may be based on the result of a single exam, or on the students performance during the whole semester. In the latter case, usually a point system, not the 2–5 scale is used. The points accumulated during the semester are added and converted to a final grade according to some scale.

As a failing grade means merely having to repeat the failed subject, and can usually be corrected on a retake exam (and in some cases also on a special "committee exam"), it is used much more liberally, and it is quite common for a significant number of students to fail a class on the first attempt.

Foreign languages

Students in Polish schools typically learn one or two foreign languages at schools. Generally, in 2005/06 the most popular obligatory foreign languages in Polish schools were:

English – 67.9%

German – 33.3%

French – 13.3%

Spanish – 10.2%

Russian – 6.1%

Italian – 4.3%

Latin – 0.6%

Others – 0.1% 

In 2005/06 there were 49,200 students in schools for national minorities, most of them in German, Kashubian, Ukrainian and Belarusian .

来源:中国教育部涉外监管网

波兰的高等教育由科学与高等教育部负责。

波兰高校分为两种类型:一类是普通高等学校,另一类是高等职业教育院校。普通高等学校提供6-8学期的第一学位(学士学位)课程,或10-12学期一贯制的硕士学位课程;高等职业教育院校仅提供6-8学期的第一学位(学士学位)课程。高等职业院校的毕业生和普通高等学校学士学位获得者均可继续学习3-5学期的硕士研究生课程,获得硕士学位。硕士学位获得者可申请攻读博士学位。

波兰各高校正在采用欧洲学分转换制度(ECTS)。由于ECTS在欧洲的普遍应用,波兰也相应地建立了其学分转换制度, 以简化课程和学分对比的程序。波兰高校主要教学语言为波兰语,也有一些课程用英语、德语或法语讲授。

此次更新的名单为波兰科学与高等教育部认可的公立高等院校名单(科学与高等教育部网站:http://www.nauka.gov.pl/)。

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