爱尔兰 Ireland (IRL)

爱尔兰共和国 the Republic of Ireland

时间:2013-07-17 04:53:18  来源:西游留学  作者:西游留学  关注: edit

首都:都柏林

人口:4460000

官方语言:爱尔兰盖尔语、英语

    爱尔兰简介

爱尔兰风景如画,它丰富多采的自然风光令人神往,这里有翠绿的乡村、绵延的沙滩、蜿蜒曲折的湖岸和河流,这里的人们天性热情好客,并且乐于与人交谈,而所有这些,正是爱尔兰作为绝佳度假胜地的精华所在。

爱尔兰著名的自然风光包括莫赫悬崖和凯瑞风景区,其中莫赫悬崖可谓是整个爱尔兰最壮观的景点之一,莫赫悬崖地形怪异,以奇险著称。爱尔兰是植物的天堂,正是有了乱花渐欲迷人眼的各类植物,这个国家才生机盎然,其中最著名的则是三叶草了,这种被用来代表整个国家的植物,被爱尔兰人溺爱至极,国家各处都有着三叶草的印迹,爱尔兰人常说,找到三叶草,就可以找到幸福!爱尔兰的公众交通系统既安全又效率高,也比较经济,公汽、长途汽车和火车是爱尔兰最普通的公交方式;国内航运业较为发达,而且效率高、价格适中。

  • 该国旅游官方机构联系方式:
  • 地址:不详
  • 电话:353-8081722010
  • 传真:不详
  • Email:http://www.discoverireland.com/gb/forms/newcontact/
  • 官方网站:不详
    爱尔兰旅游概况

爱尔兰共和国简称爱尔兰,是一个欧洲国家,欧盟成员国之一,位于欧洲西北海岸的爱尔兰岛,约占该岛南部的5/6面积,剩余东北部的1/6面积属于大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国,称为北爱尔兰,它西临大西洋,东靠爱尔兰海,与英国隔海相望,爱尔兰为北美通向欧洲的通道。爱尔兰人属于凯尔特人,是欧洲大陆第一代居民的子嗣,它有5000多年历史,是一个有着悠久历史的国家。境内海岸线长3169公里,中部是丘陵和平原,沿海多为高地;气候温和湿润,为典型温带海洋性气候,受北大西洋暖流影响,四季区别不明显,年平均气温在0℃到20℃之间;长年多雨,晴朗天气约占全年1/5时间。爱尔兰是一个以农牧业为主、经济总量较小、但非常发达的小国,主要依赖出口贸易,被称为“欧洲的农村”。

    爱尔兰教育概况

来源:维基百科

Education in the Republic of Ireland

There are three distinct levels of education in Ireland: primary, secondary and higher (often known as "third-level") education. In recent years further education has grown immensely. Growth in the economy since the 1960s has driven much of the change in the education system. Education in Ireland is free at all levels, including college (university), but only for students applying from the EU. There are Student Services Fees (up to €1,500 in 2009/10) which students are required to pay on registration, to cover examinations, insurance and registration costs.

The Department of Education and Skills, under the control of the Minister for Education and Skills, is in overall control of policy, funding and direction, whilst other important organisations are the National Qualifications Authority of Ireland and the Higher Education Authority, on a local level Vocational Education Committees are the only comprehensive system of government organisation. There are many other statutory and non-statutory bodies which have a function in the education system. The current Minister for Education is Mary Coughlan.

Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Years

1.1.1 Pre-school

1.1.2 Primary School (Bunscoil)

1.1.3 Secondary School (Meánscoil)

1.1.3.1 Junior Cycle (Timthriall Sóisearach)

1.1.3.2 Transition Year (Idirbhliain)

1.1.3.3 Senior Cycle (Timthriall Sinsearach)

2 Primary education

2.1 Types of school

3 Secondary education

3.1 Types of programme

4 Further education

5 Higher education

5.1 Fees

Introduction

All children must receive compulsory education between the ages of six and fifteen years, and all children up to the age of eighteen must complete the three years of post-primary. The Constitution of Ireland allows this education to be provided in the home; this has caused much legal wrangling for years as to the minimum standards required for home education since the constitution does not explicitly provide for the State to define these minimum standards.

In 1973 the requirement to pass the Irish language in order to receive a second-level certificate was dropped although a student attending a school which receives public money must be taught the language. Certain students may get an exemption from learning Irish; these include students who have spent a significant period of time abroad or students with a learning difficulty.

English is the primary medium of instruction at all levels, except in Gaelscoileanna: schools in which Irish is the working language and which are increasingly popular. Universities also offer degree programmes in diverse disciplines, taught mostly through English, with a few in Irish. Some universities also offer some courses partly through other languages such as French, German or Spanish.

Years

Education is compulsory for all children in Ireland from the ages of six to 16 or until students have completed three years of second level education and including one sitting of the Junior Certificate examination although it is most common to start primary education aged four or five.

Children are typically enrolled in the Junior Infant class at the age of either four or five depending on the wishes of their parents and the policy of the school. Some schools require the child to have attained the age of four before a specific date in order to enrol. Otherwise, the child must seek a place in a different school or wait until the next year to enrol.

Pre-school

Pre-school is optional in Ireland and takes the form of a number of privately-run crèches, play-schools and Montessori schools, which children attend for one year or two, at ages three and/or four. Parents must pay to send their child to these institutions using their own earnings and any child allowance they receive from the government. From 2009 onwards children are entitled to a year of free pre-schooling in the year prior to starting primary schools under the "Early Childcare and Education Scheme".

Primary School (Bunscoil)

Junior Infants (Naíonáin Shóisearacha)

Senior Infants (Naíonáin Shinsearacha)

First Class (Rang a hAon)

Second Class (Rang a Dó)

Third Class (Rang a Trí)

Fourth Class (Rang a Ceathar)

Fifth Class (Rang a Cúig)

Sixth Class (Rang a Sé)

Secondary School (Meánscoil)

Junior Cycle (Timthriall Sóisearach)

First Year (An Chéad Bhliain)

Second Year (An Dara Bliain)

Third Year (An Tríú Bliain) - The Junior Certificate (Teastas Sóisearach) Examination is sat in all subjects (usually 10 or 11) in early June. Many schools have Mocks (also known as Pres) to prepare students around February. The Mocks are not State examinations - independent companies provide the exam papers etc. - and are therefore not mandatory across all schools.

Transition Year (Idirbhliain)

Transition Year (Idirbhliain - optional in some schools, compulsory in others - Otherwise not available.)

Senior Cycle (Timthriall Sinsearach)

Fifth Year (An Cúigiú Bliain)

Sixth Year (An Séú Bliain - The Leaving Certificate (Ardteistiméireacht) examination is sat in early June of this year. Many schools have Mocks (also known as Pres) to prepare students around February. The Mocks are not State examinations - independent companies provide the exam papers etc. - and are therefore not mandatory across all schools.

Primary education

The Primary School Curriculum (1999) is taught in all schools. The document is prepared by the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment and is perhaps unusual in leaving to church authorities (usually the Catholic Church but not universally) the formulation and implementation of the religious curriculum in the schools they control. The curriculum seeks to celebrate the uniqueness of the child:

...as it is expressed in each childs personality, intelligence and potential for development. It is designed to nurture the child in all dimensions of his or her life -- spiritual, moral, cognitive, emotional, imaginative, aesthetic, social and physical...

The Primary Certificate Examination (1929–1967) was the terminal examination at this level until the first primary school curriculum, Curaclam na Bunscoile (1971), was introduced, though informal standardized tests are still performed. The primary school system consists of eight years: Junior and Senior Infants (corresponding to kindergarten), and First to Sixth Classes. Most children attend primary school between the ages of 4 and 12 although it is not compulsory until the age of 6. A minority of children start school at 3.

Types of school

Primary education is generally completed at a national school, a multidenominational school, a gaelscoil or a preparatory school.

National schools date back to the introduction of state primary education in the mid-19th century. They are usually controlled by a board of management under diocesan patronage and often include a local clergyman.  The term "national school" has of late become partly synonymous with primary school in some parts. Recently, there have been calls from many sides for fresh thinking in the areas of funding and governance for such schools, with many wanting them to be fully secularised.

Gaelscoileanna are a very recent movement, started only late in the 20th century. The Irish language is the working language in these schools and they can now be found countrywide. They differ from Irish-language National Schools in that most are under the patronage of a voluntary organisation, Foras Pátrúnachta na Scoileanna Lán-Ghaeilge, rather than a diocesan patronage. Nearly 10% of all school children attend Gaelscoils with 368 schools across the country making it the fastest growing education sector.

Multidenominational schools are another innovation. They are generally under the patronage of a non-profit limited company without share capital. They are often opened due to parental demand and students from all religions and backgrounds are welcome. Many are under the patronage of a voluntary organisation, Educate Together. At least one proposed school has been approved under the patronage of the regional VEC, who generally run vocational secondary schools.

Preparatory schools are independent, fee-paying primary schools that are not reliant on the state for funding. These typically serve to prepare children for entry to fee-paying independent or voluntary secondary schools. Most are under the patronage of a religious order.

As of 1996 primary schools numbered as follows:

 

Type of school

Number

Percentage of total (to 1d.p.)

Roman Catholic

2988

93.1

Church of Ireland (Anglican)

190

5.9

Presbyterian

18

.6

Methodist

1

<1

Jewish

1

<1

Muslim

1

<1

Multi-denominational

10

.3

来源:中国教育部涉外监管网

爱尔兰国家教育主管部门为爱尔兰教育科学部。大学(University)享有高度自治。其它高等教育机构的学位颁发状况由爱尔兰教育科学部所属高等教育及培训授予委员会(The Higher Education and Training Awards Council,简称HETAC)监督,所颁发的文凭亦须经该机构认可。理工学院为获得高等教育及培训授予委员会认可,可以以本校名义颁发文凭的院校。

爱尔兰的语言学校一般都具有招收外国留学生的资格,大多以招收外国学生为主,有的学校主要招收中国学生。

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