希腊 Greece (GRC/GRE)

希腊共和国 The Hellenic Republic

时间:2013-07-17 04:53:11  来源:西游留学  作者:西游留学  关注: edit

首都:雅典

人口:11100000

官方语言:希腊语

    希腊简介

希腊对欧洲文化、西方文化影响深远,素有“西方文明的摇篮”之称,这里是奥林匹克运动的发源地,是众神曾经庇佑过的地方,虽然许多神庙已经成为断壁,但是文化的痕迹却无法抹去的。希腊的旅游业十分发达,这里有碧蓝清澈的海水、纯洁的沙滩、明媚的阳光,加上众多的文物古迹,成为希腊宝贵的旅游资源,每年都吸引着大批游客来此一游。

希腊的主要旅游景点有:雅典卫城、德菲尔太阳神殿、奥林匹亚古运动场遗址,克里特岛迷宫、埃皮达夫罗斯露天剧场、维尔吉纳马其顿王墓和许多博物馆等。每年四到六月、九到十月是前往希腊最好的时候,七八月不但热,游客很多,房间难订,物价也很贵。与其它国家相比,希腊的飞机票价格比较合理,轮船、公共汽车和火车相比也都非常便捷;希腊的旅店价格差别很大,旺季时价格约是淡季的1.5倍,青年旅馆不多,提供的英语服务和旅游咨询服务比较好,但价格上并没有很大的优势。

  • 该国旅游官方机构联系方式:
  • 地址:不详
  • 电话:210-8707894
  • 传真:210-6442926
  • Email:visitgreeece@gnto.gr
  • 官方网站:不详
    希腊旅游概况

希腊共和国简称希腊,被誉为“奥林匹克运动会”的发源地,拥有悠久的历史,曾对三大洲的历史发展有过重大影响。它位于欧洲东南部巴尔干半岛南端,陆地上北面与保加利亚、马其顿以及阿尔巴尼亚接壤,东部则与土耳其接壤、濒临爱琴海,西南临爱奥尼亚海及地中海。

境内四分之三为山地,沿海有低地,海岸线长15021公里,多曲折港湾;南部地区及各岛屿属于地中海型气候,全年气温变化不大,冬季气温在6℃~12℃之间,夏季则在28℃~31℃之间,夏季较长,阳光强烈;北部和内陆属于大陆性气候,冬温湿,夏干热,从北到南平均气温:1月5~11℃,7月25~27℃,年降水量东部400~700毫米。希腊拥有综合了资本主义经济以及占GDP一半左右的公共版块,旅游业是支柱产业,占希腊GDP以及外汇收入的很大一部分。希腊是欧盟经济援助的主要受惠国,受欧盟援助的资金大约占总GDP的3.3%,在过去几年中希腊经济稳步增长。

    希腊教育概况

来源:维基百科

Education in Greece

The Greek educational system is mainly divided into three levels, namely primary, secondary and tertiary, with an additional post-secondary level providing vocational training. Primary education is divided into kindergarten lasting one or two years, and primary school spanning six years (ages 6 to 12). Secondary education comprises two stages: Gymnasio (variously translated as Middle or Junior High School), a compulsory three-year school, after which students can attend Lykeio (an academically-oriented High School) or Vocational training. Higher Tertiary education is provided by Universities and Polytechnics, Technological Educational Institutes (T.E.I., 1983 ~ present) and Academies which primarily cater for the military and the clergy. Undergraduate courses typically last 4 years (5 in polytechnics and some technical/art schools, and 6 in medical schools), postgraduate (MSc level) courses last from 1 to 2 years and doctorates (PhD level) from 3 to 6 years.

All schools, regardless of level, are overseen by the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs. The Ministry exercises centralised control over state schools, by prescribing the curriculum, appointing staff and controlling funding. Private schools also fall under the mandate of the Ministry, which exercises supervisory control over them. At a regional level, the supervisory role of the Ministry is exercised through Regional Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education, and Directorates of Primary and Secondary Education operate in every Prefecture. Tertiary institutions are nominally autonomous, but the Ministry is responsible for their funding, and the distribution of students to undergraduate courses. Currently the Greek government only recognises the degree programmes offered by the state-run universities although there are several private universities and colleges offering degree programmes that are validated and overseen by American, British and other European universities. Attempts are under way to persuade the Greek government to recognise these overseas programmes.

All levels of education are catered for by both private and public schools. State-run schools and universities do not charge tuition fees and textbooks are provided free to all students. There are also a number of private tutors schools, colleges and universities operating alongside the state education and providing supplementary tuition. These parallel schools (Greek: φροντιστήριο, frontistirio (singular)) provide foreign language tuition, supplementary lessons for weak students as well as exam preparation courses for the competitive Panhellenic national examinations. Most of the students typically attend such classes (and examinations) at the tutors schools in the afternoon and evening in addition to their normal schooling.

Primary Education

Elementary schools are called "Dimotiká" (demotic, meaning municipal), a carryover term from a time when such schools were run by local communities. The name remains although it has been obsolete for decades. In the first two years pupils are not officially graded, and parents obtain feedback about their performance via oral communications with teachers. Grading begins in Year 3, and written exams are introduced in Year 5. Graduating from one year to the next is automatic, and pupils with deficient performance are given remedial tutoring. Years are called "classes", from first to sixth:

Year 1 (Πρώτη δημοτικού): age 6 to 7

Year 2 (Δευτέρα δημοτικού): age 7 to 8

Year 3 (Τρίτη δημοτικού): age 8 to 9

Year 4 (Τετάρτη δημοτικού): age 9 to 10

Year 5 (Πέμπτη δημοτικού): age 10 to 11

Year 6 (?κτη δημοτικού): age 11 to 12

Enrollment to the next tier of compulsory education, the Gymnasium, is automatic.

Secondary Education

Γυμνάσιο (Gymnasium - Middle / Secondary School) (compulsory education)

Πρώτη Γυμνασίου / 1st grade, age 12 to 13

Δευτέρα Γυμνασίου / 2nd grade, age 13 to 14

Τρίτη Γυμνασίου / 3rd grade, age 14 to 15

Γενικό Λύκειο (General Lyceum - High School)

Πρώτη Λυκείου / 1st grade, age 15 to 16

Δευτέρα Λυκείου / 2nd grade, age 16 to 17

Τρίτη Λυκείου / 3rd grade, age 17 to 18

Tertiary Education in Greece

Ανώτατα Εκπαιδευτικά Ιδρύματα - Α.E.I. (Higher Educational Institutes)

Higher Educational Institutes are consisted of two parallel sectors: the Universities and the Higher Technological Educational Institutes (T.E.I.).

Private Education

There are public and private dimotika (primary education), gymnasia (middle school; secondary education), lykeia (high school; secondary education). Some of them are for foreigners, usually children of British or American families. For example see American Community Schools.

Public and private IEK.

According to the article 16 of the Greek constitution, private tertiary education isnt allowed in Greece. However there are some Laboratories of Free Studies (Ergastiria Eleutheron Spoudon), often franchises of foreign universities, sometimes non-profit organizations, which advertise themselves as private universities. For example see New York College, BCA Business College of Athens, ALBA Graduate Business School, University of Wales, Bangor, Mediterranean College, Deree College, etc.

Vocational Education and Training

Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο, ΕΠΑ.Λ. (Epagelmatiko Lykio - Educational Lyceum, EPA.L.)

I.E.K. - Ινστιτούτο Επαγγελματικής Κατάρτισης (Institouto Epagelmatikis Katartisis - Vocational Training Institute). O.E.E.K. is the government organization which oversees these institutes.

Private EES schools often offer seminars and 1-year vocational programmes, usually for Computing or Business studies. Young Greeks can seek private vocational education using the computer software products Eurofasma and Kefaleo (Capital).

Obsolete Institutions

Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Εκπαιδευτήριο, ΤΕΕ (Techniko Epagelmatiko Ekpedeftirio - Technical Vocational School, TEE)

Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο, ΤΕΛ (Techniko Epagelmatiko Lykeio - Technical Vocational Lyceum, TEL)

Τεχνική Επαγγελματική Σχολή, ΤΕΣ (Techniki Epagelmatiki Scholi - Technical Vocational School, TES)

Ενιαίο Πολυκλαδικό Λύκειο, ΕΠΛ (Eniaio Polykladiko Lykeio - Unified Multidisciplinary Lyceum, EPL)

Current issues

The foremost topic of debate in recent years has been anagnorisi (αναγνώριση "recognition"): Private universities are forbidden by the 1975 constitution. Numerous private institutions, often franchises of European and American universities such as the University of Indianapolis and the State University of New York, but also non-profit accredited institutions, are operating legally as EES schools (translatable as "Laboratories of Free Study").

Moreover, with few exceptions, the Greek government refuses to recognize three-year university degrees. Students who completed a Bachelors degree in a foreign country find it difficult to secure employment in the public sector, unless they next obtain a Masters degree, in which case their academic qualifications are considered equivalent to a four-year undergraduate degree conferred by a Greek higher educational institute.

来源:中国教育部涉外监管网

希腊教育主管部门为希腊国家教育与宗教事务部,其高等教育机构主要分为大学类、技术类两类。

希腊另有一类由本国私立教育机构与国外院校合作成立的学校,这些学校在希腊国民经济部和财政部注册为学院(college)或教育培训公司,教学条件、教育水平和师资力量不一,不在希腊国家教育与宗教事务部的管辖范围之内。

用丹麦语授课,大学的研究生教育设有英语授课课程。个别大学和职业学院每年也设立用英语授课的专业,招收外国学生,但有名额限制。

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