西班牙 Spain (ES)

西班牙王国 Kingdom of Spain

时间:2013-07-17 04:53:03  来源:西游留学  作者:西游留学  关注: edit

首都:马德里

人口:46661950

官方语言:西班牙语

    西班牙简介

西班牙拥有十分优越的旅游资源,著名旅游胜地有马德里、巴塞罗那、塞维利亚、太阳海岸、美丽海岸等。在其3000多公里蜿蜒曲折的海岸线上,遍布着许多天然的海滨浴场,其中有闻名遐迩的三大海滨旅游区:位于西班牙南部的绵延百余公里的“金色海岸”是各国日光浴爱好者无限仰慕的旅游胜地;而以“幸福岛”闻名的加那利群岛,不仅以其壮丽的火山景观吸引了无数个慕名而来的游人,更由于其热带风光,终年阳光明媚,令游人向往;以“地中海浴池”而誉满全球的巴利阿里群岛的山光水色、海天辉映更是令人流连忘返。西班牙拥有许多王宫、教堂和城堡,其中有十多个古迹被联合国教科文组织列为重点保护的文化遗产。西班牙全国共有各种旅馆17402家,床位约151万张,入住率53.58%;全国共有7751家旅行社;以陆路交通运输为主,全国有机场47个,主要机场有马德里巴拉哈斯机场、帕尔马•德马略卡机场和巴塞罗那机场等。

  • 该国旅游官方机构联系方式:
  • 地址:INSTITUTO DE TURISMO DE ESPAÑA - TURESPAÑA,Jose Lázaro Galdiano, 6,28071 Madrid
  • 电话:34-913433500
  • 传真:不详
  • Email:infosmile@tourspain.es
  • 官方网站:http://www.tourspain.es/
    西班牙旅游概况

西班牙正式名称为西班牙王国,首都马德里,官方语言为西班牙语。它是一个位于欧洲西南部的国家,与葡萄牙同处于伊比利亚半岛,它的领土还包括地中海中的巴利阿里群岛、大西洋的加那利群岛、非洲的休达和梅利利亚,其北濒比斯开湾,西邻葡萄牙,南隔直布罗陀海峡与非洲的摩洛哥相望,东北与法国、安道尔接壤,东和东南临地中海;海岸线长约7800公里,境内多山,是欧洲高山国家之一;地中海式气候,阳光充足,春秋多雨,年平均降水500-1500毫米。西班牙在世界范围内属于中等发达的资本主义工业国,拥有较发达的市场经济,它的国民生产总值位居欧洲国家前列,但人均国民生产总值在欧盟范围内并不高,稍低于欧盟平均水平。西班牙的制造业、旅游业发达,它是世界最大的造船国之一,也是最大的汽车生产国之一。

    西班牙教育概况

来源:维基百科

Education in Spain

The current system of education in Spain is known as LOE after the Ley Orgánica de Educación, or Fundamental Law of Education. State education in Spain is free and compulsory education lasts from 6 to 16 years of age.

Up to Secondary level

Structure

Below Higher Education the system can be seen as consisting of four levels:

Pre-school (Educación Infantil, segundo ciclo) - 3 to 5 years of age

Primary School (Educación Primaria) six years of schooling - 6 to 11 years of age

Compulsory Secondary Education (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria) four years of schooling - 12 to 15 years of age

Post-Compulsory Schooling (Bachillerato) two years of schooling - 16 and 17 years of age

Children 3 to 5 years old in Spain have the option of attending the Pre-school stage (infantil or popularly known as preescolar), which is non-compulsory and free for all students. It is regarded as an integral part of the education system with infants classes at almost every primary school. There are some separate nursery schools (Colegios Infantiles).

Children (whose parents chose that they should) enter pre-school (Educación Infantil) in the autumn of the calendar year in which they turn three years old. Following this pattern, the ages given here as corresponding to the different phases are the ages turned by children in the calendar year in which the academic year begins. Age ranges are inclusive: 3 to 5 years of age is 3 academic years.

Spanish students aged 6 to 15 undergo primary (colegio) and secondary school (instituto) education, which are compulsory and (like the preceding preschool from age 3) free of charge. Successful students are awarded a Secondary Education Certificate, which is necessary to enter the post-compulsory stage of Schooling (principally the Bachillerato) for their University or Vocational (Formación Profesional) Studies. Once students have finished their Bachillerato, they can take their University Entrance Exam (Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad, popularly called Selectividad) which differs greatly from region to region. The compulsory stage of secondary education is normally referred to by its initials: ESO (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria).

Preschool

Structured as two cycles of three years each:

Nursery or Kindergarten (Jardín de Infancia) (0–2 years of age)

Preschool (Preescolar) (3–5 years of age)

The second of these two cycles is included in the general state provision of education and, although not compulsory, is followed by nearly all children. The first cycle, nursery care, is largely privately provided and funded although there are some subsidies.

Primary school

Structured as three 2 year cycles:

First Cycle (6 and 7 years of age)

Second Cycle (8 and 9 years of age)

Third Cycle (10 and 11 years of age)

Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO)Compulsory Secondary Education (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria or ESO) is structured as two cycles of two academic years each (total 4 years):

1st Cycle (12 & 13 years of age)

2nd Cycle (14 & 15 years of age)

Upon finishing ESO the student has a number of options, including:

Spanish Baccalaureate (post-compulsory diploma)

Vocational Training.

Work (it is only possible to get a job from 16 onwards)

Spanish Baccalaureate (Bachillerato)

Spanish Bachillerato is the post-16 stage of education, comparable to the A Levels in the UK, the French Baccalaureate in France or the International Baccalaureate

There are two parts, a core curriculum with the compulsory subjects, and a specialist part with a few pre-selected branches to choose from. The core curriculum is as follows:l          Spanish Language and Literature: 1st and 2nd years

Co-official language (in case of Catalan, Basque and Galician): 1st and 2nd years

First foreign language (English, French, German or Italian): 1st and 2nd years

Philosophy: 1st and 2nd years

Physical Education: Only 1st year

Spanish History: Only 2nd year

Optional subject (2nd foreign language, psychology, information technology...): 1st and 2nd year

Catholic Religion/All World Religions Studies: Only 1st year (Optional)

The specialist part has up to four subjects (depending on the branch taken).

Arts:

History of art

Volume (sculpture)

Colours (painting)

Nature and Health Sciences:

Biology

Chemistry

Physics, Earth Sciences or Mathematics

Sciences & Engineering:

Physics,

Maths,

Chemistry or Technical Drawing

Social Sciences:

Applied Maths,

Economics,

Geography,

World History (only 1st year)

Humanities:

Latin,

Greek,

History of Art/World Literature

World History (only 1st year)

At undergraduate level, some degrees have their own branch requirements (such as medicine, engineering degrees, law...) and some courses accept students from any branch, such as Language studies, Social Work, Educational Sciences or Tourism.

Qualifications

On satisfactory completion of compulsory secondary education a student is awarded the ESO diploma (he/she is a Graduado ESO, formerly Graduado Escolar), and is eligible for the different types of post-compulsory schooling.

After completing the Spanish Baccalaureate, the Spanish Baccalaureate diploma is awarded to those who pass every subject.

Students with appropriate qualifications and wishing to enroll in Spanish universities must usually take an entrance exam called PAU (Prueba de Acceso a la Universidad or University Entrance Examination), that consists of six tests, one for each subject and a test for each history or philosophy, foreign language (commonly English) and Spanish grammar and literature (Autonomous communities that have a co-official language, have also another test about co-official language grammar and literature), after passing their Bachillerato.

Comparative with British Qualifications

The Spanish School Leaving Certificate (ESO) is equivalent to a number of GCSEs.

The Bachillerato is equivalent to A-levels. Therefore, Spanish students obtaining the appropriate grades required for entrance into universities in Europe, including Britain, are not precluded.

Vocational Trainins

The vocational training is also a common possibility after ESO or after the Spanish Baccalaureate. There are two different types of programs: Middle Grade Training Cycles (Ciclos Formativos de Grado Medio), which have the ESO diploma as a requirement, and Superior-level Training Cycles (Ciclos Formativos de grado Superior), which have the Spanish Baccalaureate as the principal requirement. After completion of the Superior-level Training Cycle, students are entitled to direct entrance to several related University degrees.

Provision and Costs

Schools in Spain can be divided into 3 categories:

State schools (Colegios Publicos)

Privately run schools funded by the State (Colegios Concertados)

Purely private schools (Colegios Privados)

According to summary data for the year 2008-2009 from the ministry, state schools educated 67.4%, private but state funded schools 26.0%, and purely private schools 6.6% of pupils the preceding year.

All non-university state education is free in Spain, but parents have to buy all of their childrens books and materials. This, nominally at least, also applies to colegios concertados. Many schools are concertados = state funded up to the end of ESO but are purely private for the bachillerato years. This drop in the fraction of pupils in educacion concertado is matched by increases of approximately equal size in the fraction in both state and purely private education for bachillerato.

There are private schools for all the range of compulsory education. At them, parents must pay a monthly/termly/yearly fee. Most of these schools are run by religious orders, and include single-sex schools.

Schools supply a list of what is required at the start of each school year and which will include art and craft materials as well as text and exercise books. Expect to spend a minimum of around ninety pounds (GBP) per child, but in some regions, the autonomous government is giving tokens to exchange them in book shops for free, this is being adapted in 2006 in regions, such as Andalucia, where kids from 3 to 10 will get the books for free, on the following years it is expected for all compulsory years. School uniform is not normally worn in state schools but is usually worn in private schools.

Admissions to Publicly Funded Schools

Article 84 of the governing law defines the principles to be applied in the admission of pupils to publicly funded schools. The details of the implementation of these principles vary from Comunidad to Comunidad.

Comunidad de Madrid

In the Comunidad de Madrid there is a largely unifiorm admissions process for state funded schools, both colegios publicos and colegios concertados. Here the main admissions procedures for pupils wishing to join a school in the autumn are carried out in the spring of the year in question.

Parents can choose the school to which they wish to send their child. It is not uncommon that there be insufficient places in a popular school for all the children for whom places are requested. In such cases places are allocated according to rather strictly defined admissions criteria as defined in Annex IX to the order establishing the process .

Extremadura

The royal decree governing the same process in Extremadura  includes admissions criteria structured in a very similar way but differing in the number of points allocated, notably for residence near to the school.

Andalucia

An analagous decree for 2007 governing the same process in Andalucia  is notably different again in the way it allocates points.

School hours

Primary school hours at present are typically from 9:00 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. and from 3:30 p.m. to 5:00 p.m., or full time classes from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m., depending on each school, except during June and September when they work mornings only, 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. There is a move towards a single session day in primary schools which would bring them in line with secondary schools. To achieve this, each school submits to the education authority a programme of extra curricular activities to be offered in the afternoons, and if approved, the proposal to move to a single session day is put to a vote by the parents for their approval.

Some schools have a dining room and provide lunches, but many do not. Many schools offer the possibility for working parents to take their children as early as 7:00 a.m., and which in some cases includes breakfast as well as providing sport or leisure activities. Secondary schools (Instituto de Enseñanza Secundaria or commonly Instituto, or IES) work from 8:30 a.m. to 2:20 p.m. throughout the school year. In both cases, there is a break that normally lasts half an hour, starting at about 11:00 a.m. At some secondary schools there are 2 breaks of 15 minutes. (2009)

School terms

Broadly similar to the English three term system, but with slightly shorter holidays at Christmas (December 23-January 7) and Easter (one week), and longer in the summer. In 2005, the summer holiday ran from June 22 until September 1/September 15, depending on the regions. The English half-term holiday does not exist, but there are frequent odd days and long weekends relating mainly to religious holidays and regional and national holidays.

Spanish Baccalaureate Awards

Each year, there are several awards for excellent students:

Extraordinary Spanish Baccalaureate Awards: At the end of the Spanish Baccalaureate, students who have an average of more than 87.5%, are entitled to sit for a special examination, where only one out of 30 students who take that examination, gets the Extraordinary Award.

National Spanish Baccalaureate Awards: Every student who gets the Extraordinary Award, is entitled to sit another examination, where only 15 students nationally are given the National Award, which includes a 1200€ student grant.

University

The normal duration for University courses is 4 years, except Medicine and some more, which are 6. University studies have "ECTS credits" as a measure for the lessons, and normally, 60 ECTS are taken each year, so, each course comprises 240 ECTS credits. Passing every subject, and getting the 240 ECTS credits, gives the right to obtaining an academic degree (Grado), architecture or engineering qualification.

Postgraduate courses are Masters degrees (Máster), and Doctoral degrees (Doctorado). The access is regulated by the university itself, through the Doctorate Commission. It is necessary to have the degree course, architecture or engineering.

Own degrees are nonregulated studies leading to an unofficial degree, recognized only by the granting university. These courses have the same structure as the regulated studies.

The universities regulate access to their own degrees and they fix the academic fees. They can also offer unofficial postgraduate degrees. Spain has internationally recognized universities, the most notable being

Complutense University of Madrid

University of Barcelona

University of Seville

Autonomous University of Barcelona

University of the Basque Country

University of Valencia

Polytechnic University of Catalonia

Technical University of Madrid

Autonomous University of Madrid

Pompeu Fabra University in Barcelona

Carlos III University of Madrid

University of Granada.

Other universities of historical relevance and reputation are the University of Salamanca and the University of Alcalá.

来源:中国教育部涉外监管网

西班牙目前有公立、私立大学共73所。

西班牙大学的专业分为四大类:人文、实验科学与健康、社会科学与法律以及技术教育,每类学科按照各自的培养目标和自主的学术价值划分为若干培养阶段,其组织模式大致为以下四种:

1、第一阶段教育(短期阶段,即“大专阶段”)。此种学业具有职业导向,完成该阶段学业后可获得大专文凭。在有些情况下,大专毕业生继续进行同类学科第二阶段教育的学业,也可以直接或通过进修其他补充课程间接进入大学本科课程的第二阶段学业。

2、第一、二阶段教育(长期阶段,即完整的“大学本科阶段”)。此种学业分为两个阶段,但通过第一阶段后并不颁发任何文凭,也不意味着完成完整的学业或具备专门的职业资格。只有完成全部两个阶段的学业,学生才可按所学学科获得相应的大学本科文凭,即文学学士学位或工程、建筑类学士学位。

3、仅第二阶段教育(即仅为“大学本科后两年阶段”)。此种学业为期2年,完成后可获得相应的大学本科文凭,即文科学士学位或工程、建筑类学士学位。大专或大学本科已完成第一阶段学业的学生,可以直接或通过进修其他补充课程间接进入该阶段学业。

4、第三阶段教育(即“研究生阶段或博士学业”)。获得文科学士学位或工程、建筑类学士学位的学生可进入本阶段学习。研究生学业首先包括2年的课程,2年课程结束后,学生可获得高级学术证明,该证明被西班牙所有大学承认,标志着学生已具有某方面专业学习的足够知识并具有撰写博士论文的资格。此后,希望取得博士学位的学生应继续进行学术研究,完成并通过博士论文后,学生可获得相应学术领域的博士学位。

大学各阶段学业的时间长短由政府法令予以规定。一般而言,第一阶段教育为期3年,其间应获得180-270个学分。第一、二两阶段教育(即“大学本科”)的长度为4、5或6年,每阶段至少2年(第一阶段2-3年,第二阶段2-3年)。在整个学业期间应获得300-450个学分方可毕业。仅第二阶段教育(即仅为“大本后两年阶段”)的长度为2年,其间应获得120-150个学分。在第三阶段教育(即“研究生阶段或博士学业”)中,学生必须取得至少32个学分,即授课阶段至少20个学分和研究性论文阶段的至少12个学分。

外国学生可在每年的7月份前向有关学校的校(院)发出入学申请。

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